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Section 2.4E: Exercises


Practice Makes Perfect

Solve a Formula for a Specific Variable

In the following exercises, solve the given formula for the specified variable.

Solve the formula (C=πd) for d.

Answer

(d=frac{C}{π})

Solve the formula (C=πd) for (π).

Solve the formula (V=LWH) for L.

Answer

(L=frac{V}{WH})

Solve the formula (V=LWH) for H.

Solve the formula (A=frac{1}{2}bh) for b.

Answer

(b=frac{2A}{h})

Solve the formula (A=frac{1}{2}bh) for h.

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}d_1d_2) for (d_1).

Answer

(d_1=frac{2A}{d_2})

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}d_1d_2) for (d_2.)

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}h(b_1+b_2)) for (b_1).

Answer

(b_1=frac{2A}{h}−b_2)

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}h(b_1+b_2)) for (b_2).

Solve the formula

(h=54t+frac{1}{2}at^2) for a.

Answer

(a=frac{2h−108t}{t^2})

Solve the formula

(h=48t+frac{1}{2}at^2) for a.

Solve (180=a+b+c) for a.

Answer

(a=180−b−c)

Solve (180=a+b+c) for c.

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}pl+B) for p.

Answer

(p=frac{2A−2B}{l})

Solve the formula

(A=frac{1}{2}pl+B) for l.

Solve the formula

(P=2L+2W) for L.

Answer

(L=frac{P−2W}{2})

Solve the formula

(P=2L+2W) for W.

In the following exercises, solve for the formula for y.

Solve the formula

(8x+y=15) for y.

Answer

(y=15−8x)

Solve the formula

(9x+y=13) for y.

Solve the formula

(−4x+y=−6) for y.

Answer

(y=−6+4x)

Solve the formula

(−5x+y=−1) for y.

Solve the formula

(x−y=−4) for y.

Answer

(y=4+x)

Solve the formula

(x−y=−3) for y.

Solve the formula

(4x+3y=7) for y.

Answer

(y=frac{7−4x}{3})

Solve the formula

(3x+2y=11) for y.

Solve the formula

(2x+3y=12) for y

Answer

(y=frac{12−2x}{3})

Solve the formula

(5x+2y=10) for y.

Solve the formula

(3x−2y=18) for y.

Answer

(y=frac{18−3x}{−2})

Solve the formula

(4x−3y=12) for y.

Use Formulas to Solve Geometry Applications

In the following exercises, solve using a geometry formula.

A triangular flag has area 0.75 square feet and height 1.5 foot. What is its base?

Answer

1 foot

A triangular window has area 24 square feet and height six feet. What is its base?

What is the base of a triangle with area 207 square inches and height 18 inches?

Answer

23 inches

What is the height of a triangle with area 893 square inches and base 38 inches?

The two smaller angles of a right triangle have equal measures. Find the measures of all three angles.

Answer

(45°,45°,90°)

The measure of the smallest angle of a right triangle is (20°) less than the measure of the next larger angle. Find the measures of all three angles.

The angles in a triangle are such that one angle is twice the smallest angle, while the third angle is three times as large as the smallest angle. Find the measures of all three angles.

Answer

(30°,60°,90°)

The angles in a triangle are such that one angle is 20 more than the smallest angle, while the third angle is three times as large as the smallest angle. Find the measures of all three angles.

In the following exercises, use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the hypotenuse.

Answer

15

Answer

25

In the following exercises, use the Pythagorean Theorem to find the length of the leg. Round to the nearest tenth if necessary.

Answer

8

Answer

12

Answer

10.2

Answer

9.8

In the following exercises, solve using a geometry formula.

The width of a rectangle is seven meters less than the length. The perimeter is 58 meters. Find the length and width.

Answer

18 meters, 11 meters

The length of a rectangle is eight feet more than the width. The perimeter is 60 feet. Find the length and width.

The width of the rectangle is 0.7 meters less than the length. The perimeter of a rectangle is 52.6 meters. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.

Answer

(13.5) m, (12.8) m

The length of the rectangle is 1.1 meters less than the width. The perimeter of a rectangle is 49.4 meters. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.

The perimeter of a rectangle of 150 feet. The length of the rectangle is twice the width. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

Answer

25 ft, 50 ft

The length of the rectangle is three times the width. The perimeter of a rectangle is 72 feet. Find the length and width of the rectangle.

The length of the rectangle is three meters less than twice the width. The perimeter of a rectangle is 36 meters. Find the dimensions of the rectangle.

Answer

7 m, 11 m

The length of a rectangle is five inches more than twice the width. The perimeter is 34 inches. Find the length and width.

The perimeter of a triangle is 39 feet. One side of the triangle is one foot longer than the second side. The third side is two feet longer than the second side. Find the length of each side.

Answer

12 ft, 13 ft, 14 ft

The perimeter of a triangle is 35 feet. One side of the triangle is five feet longer than the second side. The third side is three feet longer than the second side. Find the length of each side.

One side of a triangle is twice the smallest side. The third side is five feet more than the shortest side. The perimeter is 17 feet. Find the lengths of all three sides.

Answer

3 ft, 6 ft, 8 ft

One side of a triangle is three times the smallest side. The third side is three feet more than the shortest side. The perimeter is 13 feet. Find the lengths of all three sides.

The perimeter of a rectangular field is 560 yards. The length is 40 yards more than the width. Find the length and width of the field.

Answer

120 yd, 160 yd

The perimeter of a rectangular atrium is 160 feet. The length is 16 feet more than the width. Find the length and width of the atrium.

A rectangular parking lot has perimeter 250 feet. The length is five feet more than twice the width. Find the length and width of the parking lot.

Answer

40 ft, 85 ft

A rectangular rug has perimeter 240 inches. The length is 12 inches more than twice the width. Find the length and width of the rug.

In the following exercises, solve. Approximate answers to the nearest tenth, if necessary.

A 13-foot string of lights will be attached to the top of a 12-foot pole for a holiday display as shown. How far from the base of the pole should the end of the string of lights be anchored?

Answer

5 feet

Pam wants to put a banner across her garage door diagonally, as shown, to congratulate her son for his college graduation. The garage door is 12 feet high and 16 feet wide. How long should the banner be to fit the garage door?

Chi is planning to put a diagonal path of paving stones through her flower garden as shown. The flower garden is a square with side 10 feet. What will the length of the path be?

Answer

14.1 feet

Brian borrowed a 20-foot extension ladder to use when he paints his house. If he sets the base of the ladder six feet from the house as shown, how far up will the top of the ladder reach?

Everyday Math

Converting temperature While on a tour in Greece, Tatyana saw that the temperature was 40° Celsius. Solve for F in the formula (C=frac{5}{9}(F−32)) to find the Fahrenheit temperature.

Answer

(104° ext{F})

Converting temperature Yon was visiting the United States and he saw that the temperature in Seattle one day was 50° Fahrenheit. Solve for C in the formula (F=frac{9}{5}C+32) to find the Celsius temperature

Christa wants to put a fence around her triangular flowerbed. The sides of the flowerbed are six feet, eight feet and 10 feet. How many feet of fencing will she need to enclose her flowerbed?

Answer

24 ft

Jose just removed the children’s play set from his back yard to make room for a rectangular garden. He wants to put a fence around the garden to keep the dog out. He has a 50-foot roll of fence in his garage that he plans to use. To fit in the backyard, the width of the garden must be 10 feet. How long can he make the other side?

Writing Exercises

If you need to put tile on your kitchen floor, do you need to know the perimeter or the area of the kitchen? Explain your reasoning.

Answer

Answers will vary.

If you need to put a fence around your backyard, do you need to know the perimeter or the area of the backyard? Explain your reasoning.

Look at the two figures below.

ⓐ Which figure looks like it has the larger area? Which looks like it has the larger perimeter?

ⓑ Now calculate the area and perimeter of each figure. Which has the larger area? Which has the larger perimeter?

ⓒ Were the results of part (b) the same as your answers in part (a)? Is that surprising to you?

Answer

ⓐ Answers will vary. ⓑ The areas are the same. The (2×8) rectangle has a larger perimeter than the (4×4) square.

ⓒ Answers will vary.

Write a geometry word problem that relates to your life experience, then solve it and explain all your steps.

Self Check

ⓐ After completing the exercises, use this checklist to evaluate your mastery of the objectives of this section.

ⓑ What does this checklist tell you about your mastery of this section? What steps will you take to improve?


Section 2.4E: Exercises

Office: 234B, Engineering 1
Phone: (312) 567-3128
E-mail: kaul [at] math.iit.edu

Time: 1:50pm, Tuesday & Thursday.
Place: 124, Engineering 1 Bldg.

Office Hours: Noon-1pm Tuesday and Thursday, walk-ins, and by appointment. Emailed questions are also encouraged.

The Course Information Handout has extensive description of the course - topics, textbook, student evaluation policy, as well as other relevant information. Read it carefully!

Excellent advice by Doug West on how to write homework solutions in a course like this, and on how to write homework solutions for proof-based problems.

Why do we have to learn proofs?
Understanding Mathematics - a study guide
On a more abstract note, here is a discussion of Language and Grammar of Mathematics - which is what you are starting to learn in a course like this.

Excellent advice for math majors, especially those planning to go on to graduate school, by Terry Tao, 2006 Fields medallist. Required reading.

  • Thursday, 9/9 : Dates and Syllabi for Exam #1 and Exam #2 have been announced below.
  • Thursday, 8/26 : HW#1 has been uploaded below.
    Please make a note of the 'Important Policy' stated in the Homework section below.
  • Tuesday, 8/24 : Check this webpage regularly for homework assignments, announcements, etc.
  • Exam # 1 : Thursday, October 14th . Topics: Everything covered in class up to and including the lecture on Thursday, September 30th. This corresponds to material covered in HW#1 to HW#6.
  • Exam # 2 : Tuesday, November 23rd . Topics: Everything covered in class from Tuesday, October 5th to Thursday, November 11th (including both days). This corresponds to material covered in HW#7 to HW#11.
  • Final Exam : Thursday, Dec 9th, 10:30am-12:30pm . Topics: All topics studied during the semester, except cryptosystems in the last class.

You only have to submit solutions to written problems .
However, solving a majority of the suggested problems is strongly encouraged. Solving these problems will improve your understanding of the course material and better prepare you for the exams.

    Supplementary Exercises. This file containing interesting problems from outside the textbook will be updated throughout the semester.


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Example 7-2

A rat is selected at random from a cage of male ((M)) and female rats ((F)). Once selected, the gender of the selected rat is noted. The sample space is thus:

Define the random variable (X) as follows:

Note that the random variable (X) assigns one and only one real number (0 and 1) to each element of the sample space ((M) and (F)). The support, or space, of (X) is (<0, 1>).

Note that we don't necessarily need to use the numbers 0 and 1 as the support. For example, we could have alternatively (and perhaps arbitrarily?!) used the numbers 5 and 15, respectively. In that case, our random variable would be defined as (X = 5) of the rat is male, and (X = 15) if the rat is female.


Section 2.4E: Exercises

Up to this point, we have considered redox reactions for processes that are spontaneous. When set up as a voltaic cell or battery, such reactions can be used as a source of electricity. However, it is possible to go in the other direction. By forcing electricity into a cell, we can make a redox reaction occur that normally would not be spontaneous. Under these circumstances, the cell is called an electrolytic cell A cell into which electricity is forced to make a nonspontaneous reaction occur. , and the process that occurs in the cell is called electrolysis The process of making a nonspontaneous redox reaction occur by forcing electricity into a cell. (Figure 14.5 "Electrolysis").

In an electrolytic cell, electricity is forced through the cell to induce a nonspontaneous redox reaction. Here, the redox reaction 2H2O → 2H2 + O2 is being caused by the introduction of electricity, which is supplied by the battery.

Electrolysis has many applications. For example, if NaCl is melted at about 800°C in an electrolytic cell and an electric current is passed through it, elemental sodium will appear at the cathode and elemental chlorine will appear at the anode as the following two reactions occur:

Na + + e − → Na 2Cl − → Cl2 + 2e −

Normally we expect elemental sodium and chlorine to react spontaneously to make NaCl. However, by using an input of electricity, we can force the opposite reaction to occur and generate the elements. Lithium, potassium, and magnesium can also be isolated from compounds by electrolysis.

Another element that is isolated by electrolysis is aluminum. Aluminum formerly was a difficult metal to isolate in its elemental form in fact, the top of the Washington Monument has a 2.8 kg cap of aluminum metal, which at the time—1884—was the largest piece of elemental aluminum ever isolated. However, in 1886 the American Charles Hall and the Frenchman Paul Héroult almost simultaneously worked out an electrolytic process for isolating aluminum from bauxite, an ore of aluminum whose chemical formula is AlOx(OH)3 − 2x. The basic reactions are as follows:

Al 3+ + 3e − → Al 2O 2− → O2 + 4e −

With the development of the Hall-Héroult process, the price of aluminum dropped by a factor of over 200, and aluminum metal became common. So much elemental aluminum is produced in the United States each year that it has been estimated that the electrolysis of aluminum uses 5% of all the electricity in the country. (Recycling aluminum requires about 1/70th the energy of refining aluminum from ore, which illustrates the tremendous energy savings that recycling provides.)

Another application of electrolysis is electroplating The deposition of a thin layer of metal on an object for protective or decorative purposes. , which is the deposition of a thin layer of metal on an object for protective or decorative purposes (Figure 14.6). Essentially, a metal object is connected to the cathode of an electrolytic cell and immersed in a solution of a particular metal cation. When the electrolytic cell is operated, a thin coating of the metal cation is reduced to the elemental metal on the surface of the object the thickness of the coating can be as little as a few micrometers (10 −6 m). Jewelry, eating utensils, electrical contacts, and car parts like bumpers are common items that are electroplated. Gold, silver, nickel, copper, and chromium are common metals used in electroplating.


Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Air Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis (2008)

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9The central goal of this project is to produce a prioritized research agenda that addresses shortcomings in our knowl- edge related to airport-related HAPs. The current ability of researchers, airport operators, consultants, and others to assess the health risks associated with human exposure to aviation-related HAPs relies on a number of criteria includ- ing the sources, toxicity, and chemistry of HAPs. One activity that will greatly assist in this goal is to identify which pollutants to consider as aviation-related HAPs and rank their relative importance. In general terms, this report intends to provide a screening-level analysis of the volatile or- ganic compounds (VOCs) emitted at airports in order to help prioritize compounds that might pose an inhalation risk to people at or near the airport. This risk is a function of the tox- icity of each molecular species and the extent of exposure to this species. Total human exposure is a complex function of emissions, chemistry, dispersion, length of exposure, location, and affected population and is not easily condensed into a simple formula (see Figure 1 in Section 1.4). To determine which sources are the most important, one must know what exposure group is of interest. Airline pas- sengers are in closest proximity to GAV emissions while trav- eling to and from the airport, and spend a few hours inside the airport buildings and several hours inside the aircraft cabin itself. Residents of nearby communities are likely in closest proximity to either GAV or to aircraft themselves, depending on the geographic configuration of the roads, airfield, and housing. Airport employees can be in close prox- imity to virtually all airport-related sources. As shown previ- ously in Figure 2’s map of a hypothetical airport, some communities near the hypothetical airport are closest to the airfield, while other nearby communities are closest to the roadside traffic. Evaluation of which source is most impor- tant for each possible exposure group must be done on a case- by-case basis, and this report does not attempt to do so. Instead this report only examines overall airport-related emissions. The FAA adopted a related but simpler approach to de- velop a list of airport-related HAPs compounds in a recent review of HAPs emissions (URS 2003). FAA selected the HAPs compounds that are emitted in largest quantity in airport-related activities. This approach resulted in their tab- ulation of 10 aviation-related HAP compounds on the basis of mass emission rates (see Table 1, second column). The rel- ative toxicity of the compounds was not directly considered. The difficulty with that approach is that the relative toxicities of the various compounds have the potential to vary far more than their emission rates. A strength of that approach is that the methodology is simpler since many of the toxicity factors are uncertain. The approach used in this report is to weigh the impor- tance of HAPs by both their relative emission rate and toxicity, even though the toxicological data are clearly in- complete. Estimates of relative HAP emissions can be made as a function of molecular species for the various sources present at airports. As discussed in the next section, the most important source of most airport gas-phase HAPs is the aircraft themselves. Furthermore, the vast majority (> 90%) of aircraft HAP emissions occur when aircraft are taxiing or idle. This report therefore focuses primarily on this HAPs source (aircraft idle/taxi emissions) to generate a list of the most important aviation-related HAPs com- pounds. This list is supplemented where appropriate with information regarding emissions from airport stationary sources, GAV, or GSE. In Table 3, the relative priority of more than 50 organic species that are emitted by aircraft turbine engines and GSE are calculated. The first column identifies the compounds. The second and third columns give risk-based concentrations (RBC) for each species if available. The RBCs in the second column reflect noncarcinogenic health risks while those in the third column are derived from estimates of cancer risk. There is a detailed discussion of the sources and methods used to estimate the RBCs later on in Section 4. The RBCs S E C T I O N 2 Integration of Emission Rates with Toxicology—Prioritization of Airport Hazardous Air Pollutants

10 Compound RBC noncance r RBC cancer Mi n RBC (mg/m 3 ) Ai rcraft EI(x)/EI(HCHO ) GSE EI(x)/EI(HCHO ) Ai rcraft Relativ e Impact GS E Relative Impact me thane 0.227 ethane 0.042 ethene 1 2.1E+03 9.2E-01 9.2E -0 1 1.256 1 pr opane 0 .006 acet yl ene 0 .3 2 pr open e 3.1E+03 3.1E +0 3 0.368 0 1- buten e 3.1E+03 3.1E +0 3 0.142 0 1,3- butadiene 2.1E-0 3 8 .1E-05 8.1E -0 5 0.13 7 0 .059 1689 72 7 c2-butene 0.017 1- pentene 3.1E+03 3.1E +0 3 0.063 0 n- pentane 1.9E+01 1.9E +0 1 0.016 0 2,2,4-tr im ethy lp entane 1.9E+01 1.9E +0 1 0 to 0. 1 0 C5- ene 0.029 2- me th yl -2 -buten e 0 .015 C5- ene 0.022 2- me th yl pentan e 1.9E+01 1.9E +0 1 0.033 0 1- hexen e 6.5E-01 6.5E -0 1 0.0 6 0 benz ene 1.0E-0 2 3 .1E-04 3.1E -0 4 0.13 7 0 .378 439 1210 1- heptene 0.03 6 n- hexan e 7.3E-01 7.3E -0 1

0.01 0.06 2 0 n- heptane 1.9E+01 1.9E +0 1 0.005 0 toluen e 5.2E+00 5.2E +0 0 0.05 2 0 .450 0 hex anal 0.014 1- octene 0.022 n- octane 1.0E-01 1.0E -0 1 0.005 0 ethy lbenz en e 1.0E+00 9.7E-04 9.7E -0 4 0.01 4 0 .119 14 12 2 m, p- xy lene 1.0E-01 1.0E -0 1 0.02 3 0 .403 0 st yr ene 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.02 5 0 .007 0 0 0 4 0 o- xy le ne 1.0E-01 1.0E -0 1 0.023 0 1- nonene 0.0 2 n- nonane 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.005 0 phenol 2.1E-01 2.1E -0 1 0.016 0 1- decene 0 .015 n- decan e 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.026 0 C4- benzene 0.018 n- undecane 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.036 0 C5- cy clohexane 0.021 C5- benzene 0.017 naphthalen e 3.1E-0 3 2 .4E-05 2.4E -0 5 0.044 1808 naphthalen e 7.2E-0 5 7.2E -0 5 0.044 615 n- dodecane 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.035 0 C13- alk ane 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.014 0 C14- alk ane 1.0E+00 1.0E +0 0 0.014 0 2- me th yl naphthalene 2.1E-01 2.1E -0 1 0.017 0 1- me th yl naphthalene 2.1E-01 2.1E -0 1 0.0 2 0 form aldehy de 0.01 1.9E-0 4 1.9E -0 4 1 0 .150 5342 80 1 form aldehy de 0.01 4.4E-0 1 1.0E -0 2 1 0 .150 100 15 acetaldehy de 4.1E-0 1 1 .1E-03 1.1E -0 3 0.34 7 0 .029 314 27 acetaldehy de 9.4E-0 3 1 .1E-03 1.1E -0 3 0.34 7 0 .029 314 27 ac ro lein 2.1E-05 2.1E -0 5 0.29 3 0 .002 1404 8 9 9 pr opanal 0.059 0.07 2 acetone 3.2E+01 3.2E +0 1 0.0 3 0 butanal 4.1E-0 1 1 .1E-03 1.1E -0 3 0.078 71 ben za ldeh yde 0 .038 gly oxal 0.14 8 me th yl gl yo xal 0 .122 dim ethy ln apthalene 2.1E-01 2.1E -0 1 0.0 1 0 other PAHs 4.4E-0 5 4.4E -0 5 0.001 23 crotonaldehy de 0 to 0. 1 Table 3. Toxicity-emissions weighting of HAPs emitted by airport sources.


UNIT 4223 – 331 UNDERTAKE PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS

UNIT 4223 – 331 UNDERTAKE PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS (HSC 3052).

OUTCOME 2 UNDERSTAND THE PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES THAT CAN BE MEASURED.

Explain the principles of blood pressure to include:
Blood pressure maintenance
Differentiation between systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Normal limit of blood pressure
Conditions of high or low blood pressure
In order to maintain a good blood pressure, we should maintain a healthy lifestyle, exercising daily and healthy eating.
Preventing having high blood pressure which is known as hypertension (140/90 or more), whose chances increases as we get older, overweight, having a relative with high blood pressure, unhealthy eating, which puts us at risk of heart attack or stroke.
The low blood pressure is known as hypotension (100/60 or less), can drop from a post operation, not drinking enough, quick stand can make you dizzy.
The normal limit of blood pressure is between 100/60 to 140/90. Systolic blood pressure is when a force of heart pumping causing strain and diastolic blood pressure is when your heart is at rest (relaxing).

Explain the principle of body temperature to include:
Body temperature maintenance
Normal body temperature
Pyrexia, hyper-pyrexia and hypothermia
Body temperature is normally 37degrees no matter the temperature of the environment or the level of activity of the individual.

The hypothalamus is the temperature regulating centre of the brain, it contains receptors which are sensitive to the temperature of the blood flowing through the brain, and the skin as a sensitive receptor that also send information about the temperature of the skin to the hypothalamus.

Pyrexia is a high body temperature 38degrees, fever, which is often a symptom of infection. In a case where the body temperature rises more than 38degrees, is hyper-pyrexia, high fever, it may indicate a serious medical condition or lead to significant side effect of any extreme sun exposure or viral infection. We could use a fan to drop down the body temperature, open the window and take paracetamol.

Hypothermia is when the body temperature is cold, low temperature 35degrees or less, elderly and babies are more often at risk and should be treated as a medical emergency. The person is likely to struggle to breathe and may lose consciousness as the temperature drops. We could use extra blankets and warm cloths to raise the body temperature.

Explain the principle of respiratory rates to include:
Normal respiratory rates
Factors affecting respiratory rates in ill and well individuals
The respiratory rate is the number of breaths an individual takes per minute. The rate is usually measured when the individual is at rest and simply involves counting the number of breaths for 60seconds by counting how many times the chest rises and falls with 60seconds.

Respiratory rates may increase with illness, other medical conditions and fever. When checking respiration, it is important to note whether the individual has any difficulties in breathing.

The normal respiratory rate for adults is from 12 to 20 breaths per minute.

With well individuals, the respiration rate is affected when doing exercises, drugs and alcohol. In ill individuals, it can be affected if they have chronic respiration conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease which can lead to shortness in breath, asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways, chest tightness, breathlessness and experience episode of wheezing.

Explain the principle of pulse rate to include:
Normal pulse rate limit
Factors affecting pulse rates – raising or lowering
Pulse sites on the body
The requirement of pulse oximetry findings
Normal pulse rates are 60 to 100.
Fast heart rate (tachycardia) can be as a result of our lifestyle, anxiety, exercises, stress and some disorders. Slow heart rate (bradycardia) can be caused by age, the older we get, the more the electrical system of the heart functions abnormally heart attacks and heart infections.

There are few places on the body where we can measure a pulse rate such as wrist (radial), neck(carotid), top of the foot (pedal), forearm (brachial), groin (femoral) and temple.
Pulse oximetry are required to check the oxygen around the body. All organs require oxygen for metabolism but the brain and heart are particularly sensitive to a lack of oxygen. To prevent the consequences of desaturation, using pulse oximetry we can check the total amount of haemoglobin in the body. We can find pulse oximetry on the fingertips, except on the thumb as our own pulsation or ear lobe and also on the toes.
Explain the principle of body mass index (BMI) in relation to weight/dietary control.

BMI is the measurement of our own weight compared to our height. BMI can help determine whether we are at a healthy weight, overweight or obese. Individuals are also at risk for many diseases such as: heart disease, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, type-2 diabetes and some type of cancer. An individual with high BMI would have to perform further assessment starting with diet, change lifestyle, family history and physical activity.
Explain the major factors that influence changes in physiological measurements.

Different factors can influence changes in physiological measurement such as illness, infections, stress, lifestyle, deterioration.

Explain the importance of undertaking physiological measurements.

The importance of undertaking physiological measurements is to ensure the individual’s health status and also necessary after surgery as patients in intensive care units require continuous monitoring and sometimes have medications that requires physical measurement taken. We take these physiological measurements on individuals to make sure that they are functioning the way they are supposed to. When we carry out physiological measurement such as measuring temperature, pulse and respiration, we are monitoring for signs of abnormality. Then be able to draw conclusion about the individual’s health status and any treatment they may require which may involve medical attention or nursing care.

OUTCOME 3 BE ABLE TO PREPARE TO TAKE PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS.

Explain the help individuals may need before taking their physiological measurements.

They may need help to be in a certain position, explanation, reassurance and may need to have access to equipment.

Explain why it may be necessary to adjust an individual’s clothing before undertaking physiological measurement.

It may be necessary to adjust an individual’s clothing to get better reading for blood pressure, also check if there is any hearing aid, if so remove and wait for few minutes to cool down and check if they had drinks before taking the temperature.

OUTCOME 5 BE ABLE TO RECORD AND REPORT RESULTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT.

Explain the necessity for recording physiological measurements.

It is necessary to record physiological measurement to check and see if they are within normal parameters or if they do need treating.
Explain a few common conditions which require recording of physiological measurement.

If an individual has hypertension, it can lead to stroke or heart attack. So, we need to monitor and record any observations on the blood pressure. If taking any antibiotics for infection, we also monitor and record any changes on the blood pressure, temperature, saturation. Dehydration can lead to hypotension so encourage them to drink.


Military

Before initiating a separation action for a pattern of minor military disciplinary infractions or for patterns of misconduct, you must counsel soldiers and take rehabilitative measures. The separation authority may waive rehabilitative measures (but not counseling) in appropriate circumstances. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 1-18d.) These preliminary actions need not be taken when basis for separation is either conviction by a civilian court or commission of a serious offense.

Counseling. When a soldier's conduct deteriorates to a level that might warrant his separation, you should look for the causes and take steps to correct the soldier's attitudes or actions. A member of the soldier's chain of command must counsel him regarding his deficiencies, inform him that his continued misconduct could result in his separation, and advise him about the types of discharge that could result and the consequences of each. You should advise the noncommissioned officer in charge (NCOIC) of the problems and direct him to counsel and assist the soldier as needed. You and the NCOIC must keep written records of all counseling sessions, using DA Form 4856 when possible.

Rehabilitative transfer. When a soldier does not respond to counseling or has shown that he cannot get along with others in the unit, you should transfer him to another unit. Often a change of supervisors, associates, or living and working areas will solve the problem. If possible, the transfer should be between battalion-sized units with duty in both the gaining and losing units for at least two months. This does not preclude reassignment between brigade or larger units when local commanders consider it necessary. Only as a last resort will you recommend a permanent change of station.

Waivers If you believe a rehabilitative transfer will not help a soldier, you may request waiver of rehabilitation measures. The separation authority may approve a waiver any time on or before the date the separation authority approves or disapproves the separation. In requesting a waiver, you should fully state why the soldier cannot be rehabilitated. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 1-18d.)

INITIATION OF SEPARATION PROCEEDINGS

Your recommendation for separation should be based on your knowledge of the individual. The soldier cannot apply for a misconduct discharge. You should not use separation authority instead of a court-martial solely to keep soldiers from receiving harsher penalties. Separation action must be initiated against soldiers who have the following drug problems unless other action is taken:

  • Soldiers with the rank of sergeant through sergeant major/command sergeant major who have abused drugs.
  • Soldiers with the rank of private through specialist/corporal who have abused illegal drugs twice.
  • Any soldiers medically diagnosed as drug dependent. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 14-12c.)

Medical examination. When you initiate separation of a soldier for misconduct, other than by conviction by a civilian court, you must schedule the soldier for both a medical examination and a mental status evaluation.(see AR 635-200, paragraph 1-34.) If the examining medical officer decides that the soldier does not meet medical retention standards, he will refer the soldier to a medical board. The GCMCA will direct that the soldier be processed through disability channels if he determines that--

  • A disability is the cause or a substantial contributor to the cause of the misconduct.
  • Circumstances warrant disability processing. You must flag the soldier's records according to AR 600-8-2.

Commander's Report Upon completion of the medical evaluation, you must prepare a commander's report, addressing it through the chain of command to the separation authority. (See AR 635-200, paragraphs 7-21, 13-7, 14-9b, 14-15, and 15-6b.)

Judge advocate counseling. After preparing the report and collecting all of the documents concerning the case, tell the soldier in writing of the basis for the proposed action and advise him of his rights. (See AR-635-200, paragraphs 2-2 and 2-4.) You should then make an appointment for the TDS office to counsel the soldier on his rights. Give the soldier a copy of his entire separation file to take with him to the TDS office.

Witnesses. If the soldier requests a board of officers to hear the case, the appropriate commander will ensure that military witnesses are not transferred or separated before the board hearing, except when an enlistment or period of service fixed by law expires. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 2-9.)

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO SOLDIERS

Once recommended for separation, a soldier can exercise specific rights and options as addressed in the following paragraphs.

Separation board. Unless in civil confinement, a soldier has the right to a hearing before a separation board if the commander initiates the separation under the--

  • Administrative board procedures. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 2-4.)
  • Notification procedures, and the soldier has six or more years of total active and reserve military service at the time of separation. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 2-2.)

Soldiers have the right to appear before the separation board unless unable because of civil confinement or absence without authority. In such cases, soldiers may choose to be represented by counsel before the board. Soldiers may submit any statements they want to have attached to the separation recommendation. Give soldiers at least three duty days to consult with counsel a judge advocate officer will advise soldiers concerning their rights.

Soldiers may waive all of these rights failure to respond within seven duty days will constitute a waiver. The JAG officer will use the format shown in AR 635-200, Figure 2-5, to record counseling and the rights selection or waiver.

Counsel. Any soldier recommended for discharge for misconduct, who has requested appearance before aboard of officers, is entitled to representation by a--

  • Civilian attorney at no expense to the government.
  • Appointed JAG officer or other military counsel qualified under UCMJ, Article 27(b)(l).

Withdrawal of waivers. A soldier who waives his right to appear before a board of officers, to submit statements, or to have counsel may withdraw that waiver and request these rights any time before the separation authority orders, directs, or approves his discharge.

SEPARATION PROCESS

Once you have completed a report and a JAG officer has counseled the soldier, you must forward the case through channels to higher headquarters. If the soldier refuses to consult with counsel, prepare a statement to that effect and forward the case as if the soldier had consulted with counsel.

Chain of command review. Route the recommendation through the chain of command to the separation authority. In actions involving cases of misconduct, except cases of drug abuse, all intermediate commanders (battalion, brigade) will review the file and may--

  • Disapprove the action and direct reassignment.
  • Recommend separation for unsatisfactory performance.
  • Disapprove the misconduct action and take further action against the soldier for unsatisfactory performance. Only commanders with special court-martial jurisdiction have this option.
  • Recommend approval and forward it to the next higher commander.

Separation actions that are required to be initiated due to abuse of illegal drugs must be forwarded through the chain of command to the separation authority for appropriate action.

Separation authority. For misconduct cases where a discharge under other than honorable conditions is warranted, the separation authority is either the GCMCA or a general officer in command with a judge advocate or legal advisor available. A general officer cannot, however, approve a discharge based upon a foreign conviction. The commander who is an SPCMCA acts as the separation authority when a discharge under other than honorable conditions is not warranted and the notification procedure is used. An honorable discharge may be ordered only when the GCMCA has authorized the exercise of separation authority in the case.

The appropriate separation authority appoints a board of officers. When the board has recommended separation for misconduct, the separation authority may do one of the following:

  • Direct retention.
  • Direct separation for misconduct.
  • Direct separation for unsatisfactory performance or for whatever reason the soldier received notification.
  • Approve the separation, but suspend its execution for up to six months.

Options available to soldiers. If a soldier who is entitled to a board requests one, the separation authority will appoint no fewer than three experienced commissioned, warrant, or noncommissioned officers (sergeant first class or higher and senior in rank to the respondent) to hold a hearing and make findings and recommendations on the separation action. Soldiers are entitled to counsel at this hearing and may call witnesses and present evidence on their behalf. They may question the witnesses who are called to testify. Often, the board will call you and members of the soldier's chain of command as witnesses. The board's decision is not final, but the separation authority who appoints the board cannot, upon review, take action more severe than what the board recommended.

If the soldier is a female or a member of a minority group, she or he may request in writing that at least one member of the board also be a female or a minority member. The separation authority will appoint a member of the same minority group as the respondent or, if one is not available, appoint a member of another minority group. All determinations of availability should be documented in the record of proceedings. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 2-7b(3) and (5)).

Status of soldiers during processing. There are no special limitations on the duties soldiers may perform while awaiting separation processing. Because their records will be flagged, they are in a nonpromotable status. You should stay abreast of the status of proceedings to inform the soldiers and answer questions.

Conviction By A Civilian Court

The procedures and policies governing a misconduct separation, based on conviction by a civilian court, differ from those relating to other misconduct separations. Conviction, for these purposes, means any action that decides the issue of guilt and carries the power of a state or federal court to impose a penalty, even though the court or statutes do not call it a conviction.

When a soldier has been convicted by a civilian court or when court action has been taken that is tantamount to a finding of guilty (including adjudications in juvenile proceedings), the separation authority may discharge the soldier if the offense meets either of two criteria:

  • A punitive discharge would be authorized for the same or a closely related offense under the MCM, or
  • The sentence by civil authorities includes confinement for six months or more, without regard to suspension or probation.

The separation authority makes the final discharge decision. The separation authority usually gives a discharge under other than honorable conditions but may give an honorable or general discharge certificate or entry level separation when the soldier's overall record merits it. (See AR 635-200, Chapter 3, Section III.)

PRELIMINARY ACTIONS

Soldiers subject to discharge under AR 635-200 will be considered and, if appropriate, processed for discharge, even if an appeal is pending or is filed later. Execution of a discharge, however, must be withheld until one of the following occurs:

  • An appeal is complete.
  • The soldier states in writing that he does not intend to appeal.
  • The time to submit an appeal expires or the soldier's term of service expires, whichever is first.

You decide to initiate separation actions such initiation is not mandatory. Soldiers do not have a right to request discharge. The separation authority may decide not to separate a soldier if the circumstances so warrant and if civil authorities have placed no restrictions on the soldier that would interfere with his performance of duty.

When contemplating separations, take action as specified in the administrative board procedure (AR 635-200, paragraph 2-4) the notification procedure (AR 635-200), paragraph 2-2) is authorized if characterization of service under other than honorable conditions is not warranted. AR-635-200, Chapter 2, Section IV, prescribes additional actions to take when soldiers are confined or are beyond military control due to their unauthorized absence.

Your duties are the same in the case of a conviction by civilian court as in cases of misconduct. Soldiers confined by civil authorities may consult a JAG by correspondence. You will inform the soldier of a separation action and of the soldier's rights. You will personally deliver this notice to the soldier or send it by certified mail with return receipt requested. You then advise the soldier that he must notify you of an election of rights before a specified date (not less than 30 days from date of receipt of notice). If the soldier does not respond, process the separation action as though the soldier had waived his rights.

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO SOLDIERS.

Once you decide to recommend discharge, soldiers may demand the specific rights and options addressed in the following paragraphs.

Separation board. When soldiers are under military control, the separation board procedures are the same as for misconduct cases. When soldiers who are entitled to an administrative board are confined by civilian authorities, they will be notified that the hearing by a board of officers will proceed in their absence they lose their right to appear before the board.

Counsel. The right to representation before a separation board is the same as for a misconduct discharge. If soldiers are confined by civil authorities and unable to attend proceedings, they will still be represented by counsel.

Separation process. The procedures for processing a recommendation for separation are the same for civilian conviction as for misconduct. Cases will be processed through the chain of command to the separation authority.

Unsatisfactory Performance

Soldiers may be separated under the provisions of AR 635-200, Chapter 13, when they are unqualified for further military service because of unsatisfactory performance. Soldiers separated for unsatisfactory performance will receive honorable or general discharge certificates, as warranted by their military records. The separation authority specified in AR 635-200, paragraph 1-21, decides discharges.

PRELIMINARY ACTIONS

Counseling. Before initiating separation actions for unsatisfactory performance, you must counsel soldiers and take rehabilitative measures. These procedures are the same as those for separations for a pattern of minor military disciplinary infractions and for other acts or patterns of misconduct.

Initiation of separation proceedings. Base your separation recommendations on knowledge of individual soldiers and their performance. Soldiers cannot apply for an unsatisfactory performance separation. After you recommend soldiers for discharge for unsatisfactory performance, follow the same procedures as for separations for misconduct.

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO SOLDIERS

Soldiers who are recommended for discharge for unsatisfactory performance and who have six or more years of active and reserve service at the time separation action is initiated are entitled, upon request, to a hearing before an administrative separation board. Their right to counsel is the same as for separations for misconduct.

SEPARATION PROCESS

The SPCMCA serves as the separation authority and will convene an administrative separation board if necessary. If a hearing is not required or if a soldier waives his right to a hearing, the separation authority can be one of the following:

  • A commander in the rank of lieutenant colonel or above.
  • A commander in the rank of major on an approved recommended promotion list commanding a unit authorized a lieutenant colonel or higher.

Hardship and Dependency

No matter how thorough the screening process, the Army accepts people who, because of hardship or dependency at home, should be discharged before their ETS. These soldiers are not attempting to shirk their obligations but have a conflict of demands that discharge will best resolve. They will usually approach you or their first sergeant with this problem, and you will take the first action in processing the request.

Any dependency or hardship sufficient to warrant a discharge must have arisen after the soldier entered active duty or have been aggravated to excess since entry on active duty. The situation must be permanent, that is, more than a minor illness or temporary job layoff.

An automobile accident may have killed a soldier's father and left the mother disabled. The two younger children at home have no relatives willing to be their guardians. In this case the soldier could reasonably claim dependency. Persons whom a soldier can claim as dependents for a dependency discharge generally include parents, spouse, and younger siblings. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 6-5a.)

A change in income or inconvenience caused by military service does not necessarily show hardship. The existence of these circumstances, however, does not prevent separation because of dependency or hardship, provided the application meets the criteria discussed above. For example, a soldier may be the only child of a farmer in an area where farm help is not available or within the family's means. The farmer is permanently disabled in an accident after the soldier's enlistment and can no longer work the farm sufficiently to maintain the family without the soldier. No other family members are able to help. In this case, the soldier could reasonably claim a hardship that has occurred since he entered the service and that warrants separation.

PRELIMINARY ACTIONS

When soldiers have a home situation that creates a conflict between their military obligation and their duty to the family, they should inform you. You should act immediately to assist. Therefore, soldiers will not act foolishly or immaturely, such as go AWOL, thereby creating a greater problem for both themselves and the Army.

As the unit commander, you should first learn as much as possible about the situation. Then, you should investigate alternatives to discharge that could alleviate the hardship or dependency until the soldier's normal ETS. Discharge should be considered a last resort.

Financial assistance. In many cases, temporary financial relief will alleviate hardship for a short term, allowing the soldier to finish his term of service. Local banks or credit unions offer loans, but often the terms of interest and repayment are prohibitive. The Army Emergency Relief (AER) fund provides a less burdensome means of financial assistance to qualified soldiers. AER loans have no interest charge and can be repaid in small monthly allotments. If the soldier cannot repay a loan without creating further hardship, the AER can authorize a grant. In some situations, the AER will offer a loan-and-grant package. (See AR 930-4, paragraph 2-4.) AR 930-4, paragraph 2-10, details conditions for approval of a loan or grant paragraph 2-11 details conditions for denial.

Leave. In other cases, a soldier's brief presence at home will allow the family to arrange to alleviate the situation until the soldier's ETS. If the soldier has enough accrued leave, he should be allowed to use it for this purpose. If he does not have enough accrued leave, you may authorize an advance of up to 45 days, depending on the time remaining in the soldier's enlistment.

Advanced leave is permitted to allow soldiers to resolve personal, emergency, or morale problems. (See AR 630-5, paragraph 5-l.) If the soldier needs more time than advancing leave will allow, a commander of any unit authorized a commander in the rank of lieutenant colonel or higher (battalion, brigade) may grant leave without pay. The maximum leave allowed is normally 60 days for one absence, including accrued and advanced leave. (See AR 630-5, paragraph 5-2.) Finally, you may authorize up to 30 days of emergency leave upon the death or serious injury of family members. (See AR 630-5, paragraphs 6-1 and 6-4.)

SEPARATION PROCESS

If a soldier believes that the only solution to a family problem is his release from the Army, he may apply in writing for discharge, attaching evidence of hardship or dependency. The evidence will usually be an affidavit and must meet the requirements of AR 635-200, paragraph 6-7. In some cases, you may grant the soldier leave to go home to get the necessary statements and reports to support his application. Once the application is complete, the soldier must submit it to you. You review it to see if it meets regulatory requirements and then add an endorsement recommending approval or disapproval. This endorsement will also include all of the information AR 635-200, paragraph 6-6b, requires. Forward the application to the separation authority for review and final action.

Void and Voidable Enlistments or Inductions

Occasionally, the Army enlists or inducts young men and women below the legal age for military service. Depending on the situation, the enlistment may be either void or voidable at the option of the Army. If the enlistment is void, the Army has no authority over the individual. If the enlistment is voidable, the Army may discharge or retain the soldier. The same rules apply to void and voidable inductions when an induction statute is in effect. If you discover that a minor is serving on an enlistment or induction, your primary duty is to determine the facts in the case. AR 635-200, paragraph 7-5, lists the necessary documents. After determining whether an enlistment or induction is void or voidable, report the situation to the separation authority.

ENLISTMENTS

An Army enlistment is a contractual agreement that gives a person military status and subjects him or her to the UCMJ. Federal statutes govern this agreement.

The United States Code states that no person under 17 years of age may be enlisted for military service. Therefore, any enlistment of a person under 17 years old who has not reached that age in the meantime is void, and the person will be released from the military. Since the individual was never properly a member of the Army, you cannot recommend a discharge. Instead, you order that the person be released from the Army's custody and control. (See AR 635-200, paragraph 72D9.)

Federal statute further requires parental consent for the enlistment of anyone who is 17 years old. If a person enlisted while younger than 17 but has in the meantime attained that age, or if time person enlisted when 17 years old without parental consent, the enlistment is voidable. Unless the soldier is charged with a serious offense committed after attaining the age of 17 years, the separation authority will discharge the soldier for minority upon application of parents or guardians. The parents or guardians must apply within 90 days of the enlistment, and evidence must show that the soldier is under 18 years of age and that he or she enlisted without the parents' or guardians' written consent.

INDUCTIONS

The induction of a person into the Army is not contractual agreement but is the fulfillment of an obligation of citizenship. The Selective Service Act gives the requirements for induction. No induction statute is currently in effect.

Alcohol Or Drug Abuse

You may initiate separation of an enlisted soldier if you determine that he is an alcohol- or drug-abuse rehabilitation failure. Separation is based on the soldier's illegal, wrongful, or improper use of any controlled substance, alcohol, or other drug while enrolled in ADAPCP. A soldier with less than six years of active and reserve military service is not entitled to an administrative separation board. He is entitled to the protections of the limited use policy, according to AR 600-85, Chapter 6. AR 635-200, Chapter 9, sets forth precise rules and procedures for separation of an abuser of alcohol or drugs.

Conscientious Objection

Since 1864, Congress has allowed draft exemptions for persons conscientiously opposed to participating in war. Since 1962, officers and enlisted soldiers have been allowed to apply for discharge on the basis of conscientious objection to war formed after entering the Army.

Soldiers may apply for discharge if, because of religious training or belief, they have firm, fixed, and sincere objections to participating in war in any form or to bearing arms. An opposition based solely on policy considerations, pragmatism, or expediency is not sufficient, nor is an objection to a single war or type of war.

Soldiers may not request discharge because of conscientious objection beliefs held before entering the Army but which they did not make known before induction or enlistment. They may not request discharge if Selective Service previously denied their request for exemption. Such beliefs must have arisen while the soldiers were on active duty, though these beliefs may be based on experiences, training, and education which occurred before the entered the service.

SEPARATION PROCESS

The separation process includes--

  • Your review of the soldier's application.
  • Interviews of the soldier by a chaplain and a psychiatrist.
  • Review by the chain of command.

Review by unit commander. Take the first action on the application for discharge. After receiving an application from a soldier, review it to ensure that it contains all of the information required by AR 600-43. If information is missing, return the application to the soldier for correction. If you think the soldier has not stated a valid case, you may not, however, refuse to process the request.

Interviews. You must arrange for a chaplain and a psychiatrist to interview the soldier. They will attach their reports to the application. You will then forward the file to the commander exercising special court-martial convening authority. He, in turn, will appoint an officer to investigate the claim. The appointed officer will be captain or higher and know the conscientious objection policies and procedures.

Chain of Command Review. After the interviews and hearings, you must again review the file and act as required by AR 600-43, paragraph 2-6. You then forward the file through the chain of command to the commander exercising general court-martial convening authority. That commander will approve the action or forward it to the Department of the Army if he recommends disapproval.

Status of soldiers during processing. While the application is being processed, the soldier will be retained in the unit and assigned duties that conflict as little as possible with his stated beliefs

OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO SOLDIERS.

After soldiers have applied for discharge, they have several rights that the commander must protect. They have the right to a hearing before an officer with a rank of captain or higher who knows the regulations and policies. Soldiers have no right to military counsel at this hearing, but they may be represented by civilian counsel at their own expense.

Good Of The Service

Soldiers may request discharge for the good of the service if--

  • Court-martial charges have been signed and sworn against them for an offense with a maximum punishment that includes either a bad conduct discharge or a dishonorable discharge under the UCMJ and the MCM, or
  • Referral of court-martial charges to a court-martial authorized to adjudge a punitive discharge, where none of the charges individually includes a punitive discharge as part of the punishment, and the escalator provisions of RCM 1003(d), MCM, are used to enhance the punishment.

In most cases, soldiers decide to submit such a request after being assigned counsel the counsel does most of the paperwork.

You also have certain responsibilities in processing the discharge requests. You should cooperate in the collection of documents that must be attached to discharge requests. The soldier and his counsel will submit to you the completed request. You will recommend approval or disapproval, based on the seriousness of the offense and the soldier's record, and forward it through the chain of command to the commander with general court-martial authority. (AR 635-200, paragraph 10-7, provides criteria for delegating approval authority for Chapter 10 requests in certain AWOL cases). The general court-martial convening authority will take final action on the request for discharge. (See AR 635-200, Chapter 10.)

Convenience Of The Government

Only the Secretary of the Army may approve and order a separation for the convenience of the government, but often that authority is delegated to commanders. This separation is characterized as honorable or general or as an entry level separation. A soldier may receive a separation for government convenience for--

  • Inability to fulfill military obligations due to parental obligations.
  • Unlawful alien status.
  • Concealment of an arrest record.
  • Inability to meet procurement medical fitness standards.
  • Personality disorder.
  • Status as surviving son or daughter.
  • Failure to meet Army body composition/weight control standards.
  • Furtherance of education.
  • Failure to qualify medically for flight training.

Fraudulent Entry

Soldiers may be separated for enlistment or reenlistment by using fraudulent concealment, omission, or misrepresentation of a material fact. That fact must have possibly resulted in the soldier's rejection had the Army known and considered it at the time of his enlistment or reenlistment. The separation authority may void the fraudulent entry and issue orders releasing the soldier from the Army it may process the soldier under the notification procedure (AR 635-200, paragraph 2-2) and grant an honorable or general discharge or it may process the soldier under the administrative board procedure (AR 35-200, paragraph 2-4) and direct a discharge under other than honorable conditions. If concealed to enlist, material facts that may warrant discharge are--

  • Prior service.
  • Citizenship status.
  • Conviction by a civil court.
  • Juvenile record.
  • Medical defects.
  • Record of AWOL or desertion.
  • Preservice homosexuality.
  • Misrepresentation of intent with regard to legal custody of children.
  • False identity.

AR 635-200, Chapter 7, Section V, discusses specific rules and procedures.

Homosexuality

Homosexuality is incompatible with military service homosexual soldiers will be separated. Grounds include preservice, prior-service, or current-service homosexual acts, admissions of homosexuality or bisexuality, or homosexual marriages. If you have any credible evidence that a basis for separation exists, you will investigate. If you determine that probable cause for separation exists, you must initiate separation action. The soldier is entitled to the protections of the administrative board procedures in accordance with AR 635-200, paragraph 2-4. AR 635-200, Chapter 15, discusses specific rules and procedures.

TYPES OF SEPARATIONS

Soldiers' military records determine the characterization of service or description of separation they receive, to include behavior and performance during their current enlistment and any extensions prescribed by law or regulation or effected with their consent. Administrative separations may be characterized or described as--

  • Honorable.
  • General, under honorable conditions.
  • Under other than honorable conditions.
  • Entry-level separations.

AR 635-200, Chapter 3, gives criteria for characterizing or describing a separation.

Honorable Discharge

An honorable discharge is a separation with honor. The honorable characterization is appropriate when the quality of the soldier's service generally has met the standards of acceptable conduct and performance of duty, or is otherwise so meritorious that any other characterization will be clearly inappropriate. The separation authority must consider the soldier's age, length of service, rank, personal decorations, and general aptitude. Isolated incidents of minor misconduct may be disregarded if the overall pattern of a soldier's service is good. No specific number of disciplinary actions disqualify a soldier from receiving an honorable discharge.

General Discharge Under Honorable Conditions

A general discharge is a separation under honorable conditions. Recommending a general discharge is appropriate if a soldier's military record is satisfactory but does not merit an honorable discharge. Again, a specific number of disciplinary actions is not an automatic criterion for a general discharge you must use discretion. A soldier who receives a general discharge might find it more difficult to obtain good civilian employment. A general discharge may be issued to a soldier only if the reason for the soldier's separation specifically allows such a discharge.

Discharge Under Other Than Honorable Conditions

A discharge under other than honorable conditions is the least favorable of the administrative discharges. It may deprive a soldier of most veteran's benefits, and it may cause great difficulty in finding civilian employment. Only the following may authorize such a discharge:

  • A commander exercising general court-martial.
  • A general officer in command with a judge advocate or legal advisor available.
  • In limited situations, a commander exercising special court-martial authority. (See 635-200, paragraph 1-21.)

The soldier must have an opportunity to present his case to a board of officers before the discharge can be authorized. It may be authorized without board action if the soldier requests a discharge for the good of the service or is beyond military control due to prolonged, unauthorized absence.

Entry-Level Separation

Entry-level separation is given to a soldier within the first 180 days of creditable continuous active duty if a discharge under other than honorable conditions is not warranted and the Secretary of the Army does not authorize an honorable discharge.


MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Deep Medhi , Karthik Ramasamy , in Network Routing (Second Edition) , 2018

22.4.4 Routing Protocols in GMPLS

The role and use of a routing protocol in GMPLS are primarily to enable traffic engineering of GMPLS-based connection-oriented networks. Two important points to note are as follows:

GMPLS-based networks require a link state-based framework for communicating the status of links.

The actual path computation algorithm need not be within the scope of these routing protocols.

You may recall that we have made the above points about link state routing protocols earlier in Chapter 3 . Since GMPLS can be used for different technologies, the routing protocols need to be somewhat generic so that it can be used in any of these technologies. At the same time, there are existing routing protocol frameworks that can be applicable, for example, OSPF and IS–IS. To satisfy the traffic engineering requirements, extensions to OSPF/IS–IS have been developed. However, first, we need to note that a “link” in a GMPLS network may not necessarily be a physical link. Depending on the technology, it may ride over another physical technology this will be discussed later in the context of multilayer networking. Second, an LSP that has been set up can serve as a point-to-point link for other nodes. Third, a protection notion about a link may be helpful to communicate what can be used by the routing path computation module. Thus, in general, it is safer to refer to a link in the context of GMPLS routing as a TE link. Since in GMPLS, control and data planes are completely separate, appropriate identifiers must be used so that end of a link can be identified, which is discussed later in Section 22.4.5 .

GMPLS extension of traffic engineering of a routing protocol relies on MPLS traffic engineering extensions. For example, sub-TLVs discussed earlier for MPLS such as maximum link bandwidth are still applicable. In addition, the following new sub-TLV types have been defined as follows:

Link Local/Remote Identifiers to provide support for unnumbered links

Support for link protection to announce the protection capability available for a link this may be useful for path computation. Typical values are unprotected, shared, dedicated 1 + 1 , and dedicated 1:1

Interface Switching Capability Descriptor to identify generalized modular switching capabilities (see Table 22.3 )

Shared Risk Link Group (SRLG) identification: This issue arises from multilayer networking since multiple TE links at a particular layer may be using the same “link” at a lower layer, such as at a fiber level. Alternately, a TE link may belong to multiple SRLGs. This information may be used for path computation as well. We will describe SRLGs in detail later in the context of multilayer networking.

We now briefly highlight some of the extensions to OSPF and IS–IS.

OSPF and IS–IS extension

To allow for TE link information exchange, OSPF again uses the opaque LSA—this is the same as done for MPLS. That is, for TE usage, an Opaque-type value of 10 is specifically assigned this LSA is known as a TE LSA. From an information encoding point of view, a TE LSA uses one top level TLV along with nested sub-TLVs, when needed, for an unnumbered link identifier, link protection type, SRLG, and so on. The sub-TLVs then include the extension information described above. Note that this is a continually evolving standard for an up-to-date list of sub-TLVs for TE, refer to [396] .

In IS–IS, all routing information encoding is always done using TLVs. Thus, for GMPLS, new TE TLVs have been defined to capture information such as protection information, SRLGs, and so on, which we have listed earlier in this section (also, see Table 6.2 in Chapter 6 ). An up-to-date list of defined TLVs can be found at [395] .


Web checklist

The IBM Web Accessibility Checklist version 5.2 incorporates requirements from Section 508 and the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0 (WCAG 2.0) Recommendation dated 12 December 2008.

1.1a: Text Alternatives
All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose.

1194.22 (a) A text equivalent for every non-text element shall be provided (e.g., via "alt", "longdesc", or in element content).

1.1.1 Non-text Content: All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. (Level A)

Controls, Input: All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. (Level A)

Time-Based Media: If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content. (Refer to Guideline 1.2 for additional requirements for media.)

Test: If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

Sensory: If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

CAPTCHA: If the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.

Decoration, Formatting, Invisible: If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.

1.1b: Non-text Content
A descriptive label is provided for time-based media, including live audio-only and live video-only content. Non-text content that is used to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer is available in different forms to accommodate multiple disabilities.

1.1.1 Non-text Content: All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below. (Level A)

See 1.1.1 above for complete text of guideline.

1.1c: Image maps
Client-side image maps are used and alternative text is provided for image map hot spots. Equivalent text links are provided if a server-side image map is used.

1194.22 (e) Redundant text links shall be provided for each active region of a server-side image map.

1194.22 (f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

1.2a: Captions
Captions are provided for pre-recorded multimedia.

1194.22 (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded): Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)

1.2b: Audio and Video (Prerecorded)
An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such.

1194.22 (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded): For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such: (Level A)

Prerecorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded audio-only content.

Prerecorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded video-only content.

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded): An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such. (Level A)

1194.22 (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

1.2.4 Captions (Live): Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. (Level AA)

Note: This is an AA requirement in WCAG 2.0

AA1.2.4 Captions (Live) Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.
Note: Compliance with Web checkpoint 1.2c: Live Multimedia, meets this WCAG 2.0 Level AA requirement.

1194.22 (b) Equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation shall be synchronized with the presentation.

1.2.4 Captions (Live): Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. (Level AA)

AA1.2.5 Audio Description
Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded): Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AA)

1.3a: Information and Relationships
Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

1.3c: Meaningful Sequence
When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence: When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. (Level A)

1.3d: Forms
Form element labels can be programmatically determined.

1194.22 (n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

1.3e: Tables
Table cells and relationships between cells can be programmatically determined.

1194.22 (g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables.

1194.22 (h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

1.3f: Cascading style sheets
Web pages are readable without requiring style sheets.

1194.22 (d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)

1.3g: Sensory Characteristics
Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics: Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound. (Level A)

1.4a: Use of Color
Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

1194.22 (c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.

1.4.1 Use of Color: Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. (Level A)

Note: This success criterion addresses color perception specifically. Other forms of perception are covered in Guideline 1.3 including programmatic access to color and other visual presentation coding.

1.4b: Audio Control
If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.

1.4.2 Audio Control: If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level. (Level A)

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether or not it is used to meet other success criteria) must meet this success criterion.

AA1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)
The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for large print and images of large print, which must have a contrast ratio of 3:1. Decorative images and logotypes are exempt from this requirement.

1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum): The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following: (Level AA)

  • Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1
  • Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.
  • Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

AA1.4.4 Resize text
Text (but not images of text) can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.

1.4.4 Resize text: Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. (Level AA)

AA1.4.5 Images of Text Use text to convey information rather than images. An image of text may be used when it is essential to the information being conveyed and the image can be visually customized to the user's requirements.

1.4.5 Images of Text: If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following: (Level AA)

  • Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user's requirements
  • Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Note: Logotypes (text that is part of a logo or brand name) are considered essential.

2.1a: Keyboard.
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.

2.1.1 Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints. (Level A)

Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.

2.1b: Scripts.
Scripts are keyboard accessible. If the content affected by scripting is not accessible, an alternative is provided.

1194.22 (l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be ready by assistive technology.

2.1.1 Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints. (Level A)

Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.

2.1c: Applets, plug-ins, and non-HTML content.
A link is provided to a directly accessible applet, plug-in or other application. Alternate content is provided for those applets, plug-ins or other applications that are not directly accessible.

1194.22 (m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with 1194.21 (a) through (l).

2.1.1 Keyboard: All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints. (Level A)

Note 1: This exception relates to the underlying function, not the input technique. For example, if using handwriting to enter text, the input technique (handwriting) requires path-dependent input but the underlying function (text input) does not.

Note 2: This does not forbid and should not discourage providing mouse input or other input methods in addition to keyboard operation.

2.1d: No Keyboard Trap.
If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap: If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away. (Level A)

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion.

2.2a: Adjust time response.
The user is allowed to turn off, adjust or extend all time limits that are not a real-time, essential or 20 hour exception.

1194.22 (p) When a timed response is required, the user shall be alerted and given sufficient time to indicate more time is required.

2.2.1 Timing Adjustable: For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true: (Level A)

Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it or

Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting or

Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, "press the space bar"), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times or

Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible or

Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity or

20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.

Note: This success criterion helps ensure that users can complete tasks without unexpected changes in content or context that are a result of a time limit. This success criterion should be considered in conjunction with Success Criterion 3.2.1, which puts limits on changes of content or context as a result of user action.

2.2b: Pause, Stop, Hide.
The user is allowed to pause, stop, or hide moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information unless it is an essential part of an activity.

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide: For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: (Level A)

Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential and

Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.

Note 1: For requirements related to flickering or flashing content, refer to Guideline 2.3.

Note 2: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion. See Conformance Requirement 5: Non-Interference.

Note 3: Content that is updated periodically by software or that is streamed to the user agent is not required to preserve or present information that is generated or received between the initiation of the pause and resuming presentation, as this may not be technically possible, and in many situations could be misleading to do so.

Note 4: An animation that occurs as part of a preload phase or similar situation can be considered essential if interaction cannot occur during that phase for all users and if not indicating progress could confuse users or cause them to think that content was frozen or broken.

2.3a: Flashing Content or Below Threshold.
Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.

1194.22 (j) Pages shall be designed to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold: Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A)

Note: Since any content that does not meet this success criterion can interfere with a user's ability to use the whole page, all content on the Web page (whether it is used to meet other success criteria or not) must meet this success criterion.

2.4a: Navigational features.
A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks: A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. (Level A)

2.4b: Navigate to main content.
Methods are provided for skipping over navigation links to get to the main content of the page.

1194.22 (o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.

2.4c: Frames.
A title and an accessible frame source are provided for each frame.

1194.22 (i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks: A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages. (Level A)

2.4d: Page Titles and Link Purpose.
Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.

2.4.2 Page Titled: Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose. (Level A)

2.4e: Focus Order.
If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.

2.4.3 Focus Order: If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. (Level A)

2.4f: Link Purpose.
The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context): The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone, or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

AA2.4.5 Multiple Ways
More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process.

2.4.5 Multiple Ways: More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process. (Level AA)

2.4.6 Headings and Labels: Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. (Level AA)

AA2.4.7 Focus Visible
Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.

2.4.7 Focus Visible: Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. (Level AA)

3.1a: Language of Page.
The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.

3.1.1 Language of Page: The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined. (Level A)

AA3.1.2 Language of Parts
The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.

3.1.2 Language of Parts: The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text. (Level AA)

3.2a: On Focus.
When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.

3.2.1 On Focus: When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context. (Level A)

3.2b: On Input.
Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.

3.2.2 On Input: Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. (Level A)

AA3.2.3 Consistent Navigation
Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Level AA)

AA3.2.4 Consistent Identification
Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.

3.2.4 Consistent Identification: Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently. (Level AA)

3.3a: Error Identification.
If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.

3.3.1 Error Identification: If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text. (Level A)

3.3b: Labels or Instructions.
Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. For all user interface components, the name and role can be programmatically determined, values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set, and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. (Level A)

AA3.3.3 Error Suggestion
If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.

3.3.3 Error Suggestion: If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content. (Level AA)

AA3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)
Web pages used for legal commitments or financial transactions, that modify or delete user-controllable data in a data storage system, or submit user test responses must 1) allow the user to reverse the submission, OR 2) be checked for input errors and provide the user with the ability to correct input before submission OR 3) allow the user to review, confirm and correct information before finalizing the submission.

3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data): For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true: (Level AA)

  1. Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  2. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  3. Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

4.1a: Parsing.
In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.

4.1.1 Parsing: In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features. (Level A)

Note: Start and end tags that are missing a critical character in their formation, such as a closing angle bracket or a mismatched attribute value quotation mark are not complete.

4.1b: Name, Role, Value.
For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1.2 Name, Role, Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A)

Note: This success criterion is primarily for Web authors who develop or script their own user interface components. For example, standard HTML controls already meet this success criterion when used according to specification.

4.2a: Text-only page.
If accessibility cannot be accomplished in any other way, a text-only page with equivalent information or functionality is provided.

1194.22 (k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.

4.2b: Accessibility-Supported Technologies Only.
Use accessibility supported technologies. Any information or functionality that is implemented in technologies that are not accessibility supported must also be available via technologies that are accessibility supported.

All WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria are written as testable criteria for objectively determining if content satisfies them. Testing the Success Criteria would involve a combination of automated testing and human evaluation. The content should be tested by those who understand how people with different types of disabilities use the Web. Understanding Conformance.


Watch the video: 5 std Maths,unit 2Numbers, exercise no 46,Division, part 8,Term 1, New samacheer syllabus (December 2021).